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Offers containers for wine.

Stainless steel wine fermentation tanks have several advantages:
The high corrosion resistance of stainless steel ensures a long service life and preserves the quality of the wine.
Stainless steel has a smooth surface that makes cleaning and descaling easier.
The containers are light and durable, which makes it easy to transport and store.
The use of stainless steel does not affect the taste and quality of the wine, as it does not oxidize and does not enter into a chemical reaction with the drink.
Tanks can be used not only for wine fermentation, but also for other processes in the preparation of alcoholic beverages.
Therefore, stainless steel wine fermentation tanks are a practical and reliable choice for lovers of winemaking and the production of alcoholic beverages.

Drinking wine in moderation can have a positive impact on a person's health. Here are some examples of the benefits of wine:

Reduced risk of cardiovascular disease: Moderate wine consumption is associated with a reduced risk of heart disease. Red wine contains antioxidants such as resveratrol, which help protect the heart and blood vessels.

Support for brain health: Grapes contain polyphenols that may help protect the brain from age-related damage. Moderate wine drinking has been linked to improved memory and a reduced risk of certain neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's.

Help with Depression and Anxiety: Moderate wine consumption has been linked to improved mood and reduced anxiety levels. Grapes contain resveratrol, which can help improve mood and reduce the risk of depression.

Reducing the risk of developing certain types of cancer: The polyphenols found in red wine may help protect the body from the development of certain types of cancer, including breast, prostate, and colon cancer.

Support for bone health: Moderate wine consumption has been linked to improved bone health. Grapes contain boron, which helps maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

It is important to remember that drinking in large quantities can be harmful to health. Moderate drinking of wine is one to two standard glasses per day for men and one standard glass per day for women. If you have medical or alcohol problems, you should consult a specialist.

 

Stainless steel winemaking tanks from Roza Vetrov™.

 

The range of stainless steel containers used in the production of wine and its storage is quite large. There are barrels of different volumes on sale, up to 50,000 liters, with flat and conical bottoms, with stationary legs, with drain taps and others.

 

Barrels with stainless steel floating lid

 

Stainless steel tanks are widely used in wine production for the following reasons:

 

♦ Safety for the product: stainless steel is a neutral material that does not interact with wine, preserving its quality and taste.

 

♦ Corrosion resistance: Wine drinks have a low pH, which can corrode metal surfaces. Stainless steel tanks are highly resistant to corrosion, which ensures a long service life and a high level of hygiene.

 

♦ Easy to clean: The stainless steel surface is smooth and easy to clean, providing a high level of hygiene and making stainless steel containers easy to clean. This is especially important in the production of wine, where cleanliness and hygiene are critical to maintaining the quality of the product.

 

♦ Strength and durability: Stainless steel is a strong material and can withstand high pressures and temperatures, which is important in wine production where the right temperature and pressure must be maintained for optimum quality.

 

♦ Environmentally friendly: Stainless steel is a recyclable material, making it environmentally friendly and easy to recycle and dispose of.

 

All in all, stainless steel tanks are a reliable and safe solution for wine production that ensures a high level of hygiene, preserves the quality of the product and has a long service life.

 

Wine barrels with floating lid

 

Floating lid wine barrels are a traditional way of storing and aging wine that has been used for many years. The lid on such a barrel is called a "hat" because it floats on the surface of the wine and covers it to prevent air from entering and protect the wine from oxidation.

 

The benefits of floating lid wine barrels include:

 

♦ Improved control over the maturation process: thanks to the floating lid, you can control the filling level of the barrel with wine, which allows you to more accurately control the concentration of alcohol and other chemical elements during the maturation process.

 

♦ Less risk of wine oxidation: A lid on a barrel protects the wine from oxidation, which can lead to loss of flavor and aroma.

 

♦ More uniform maturation of the wine: thanks to the hat, the wine in the barrel can mature evenly in all directions, which is important for creating a high-quality product.

 

♦ Ease of Use: Floating lid wine barrels are easier to use than traditional barrels because there is no need to use a tap to pump out the wine, which can reduce the risk of wine contamination.

 

♦ Traditional look: These barrels create a traditional look and feel, which can be important for producers who want to keep the traditional way of making wine.

 

 

Floating Lid Stainless Steel Wine Barrels are a modern alternative to the traditional floating lid oak barrels.

 
 

These barrels offer a number of advantages over traditional oak barrels, including:

 

♦ Durability: Stainless steel barrels have a longer service life than traditional oak barrels, as they are not affected by microorganisms and do not require periodic processing.

 

♦ Ease of care: stainless steel barrels are easy to clean and decontaminate, making them more hygienic and easy to care for.

 

♦ Improved control over the maturation process: As with traditional floating top barrels, stainless steel floating top barrels allow you to control the level of filling of the barrel with wine, which improves control over the maturation process.

 

♦ Less risk of wine oxidation: Since stainless steel barrels are airtight, they protect the wine from oxidation and keep it fresh and aromatic.

 

♦ High volume storage efficiency: Stainless steel barrels can be used to store and mature large volumes of wine, making them more efficient than traditional oak barrels.

 

♦ Temperature Controlled: Stainless steel barrels can be fitted with temperature control systems, allowing wine producers to fine-tune the aging process and achieve the desired taste and aroma of the wine.

 

♦ No bad odor: New oak barrels may have an unpleasant odor that can be transferred to the wine. Stainless steel barrels are odorless, making them more attractive to wine producers.

 

♦ More precise quality control: Stainless steel barrels with a floating lid can be equipped with systems to control the level of oxygen and other factors, which allows you to more precisely control the maturation process and ensure high quality wine.

 

♦ Ease of transport: Stainless steel barrels can be produced in different sizes and are easy to transport, making them more convenient to use in production plants and for transporting wine.

 

♦ Preservation of natural taste: Since stainless steel barrels do not interact with wine, they retain its natural taste and aroma, which can be important for producers who seek to preserve the unique taste and aroma of their wine.

 

 Environmental sustainability: Stainless steel barrels can be recycled after use, making them more environmentally sustainable than traditional oak barrels.

 

All in all, stainless steel floating lid wine barrels are a modern and efficient way to store and mature wine, with a number of advantages over traditional oak barrels. However, the choice between them depends on the individual needs and preferences of the wine producer.

 

Construction

 

A stainless steel barrel with a floating lid consists of:

 

 A cylindrical container (actually a barrel) for raw materials or products.

 

♦ Floating cover, around the circumference of which there is an inflatable silicone chamber.

 

 The pump with a clamp on a barrel and the manometer.

 

 Excess pressure relief valves (during fermentation).

 

 A set of additional parts: connecting hose, fittings, braided cord, spring-loaded clamps.

 

The container is made of stainless steel AISI 304, thickness, depending on the volume, from 0.6 to 6 mm. The inner surface is with electrochemical mirror polishing, the outer surface is processed in the form of “scales”.

 

Welding is carried out according to the latest generation TIG technology, without contact and welding materials, in inert gas, with pickling and auto-polishing of seams.

 

The kit may include a top leaky cover to protect against dust and debris. As well as a plug, which, if necessary, is placed instead of the drain tap.

 

A standard barrel of 200 liters is made 840 mm high, 540 mm in diameter. Weighs 9.8 kg.

 

Operating principle

 

A barrel with a floating lid works as follows. The container must be placed on a stable support or a flat surface so that the bottoms are horizontal.

 

Wine is poured into the barrel in an amount of at least 5 liters. The floating cover is lowered on a mirror. Air is forced into the chamber by a pump. After that, the contents of the barrel go into storage mode - interaction with the outside atmosphere is excluded.

 

To drain the contents or dose them out, it is necessary to release the pressure using a valve. After that, it will be possible to open the tap located at the bottom of the tank and drain some of the product. Then the faucet is closed, the lid is again placed on the surface of the wine, air is again pumped into the silicone chamber.

 

Kegs, including stainless steel, were previously used only for beer. This was due to the imperfection of the technology for storing grape drinks in containers of this type. But, as a result of numerous experiments, the order of washing and subsequent filling of kegs was determined. After that, they began to be used for wine.

 

In technologies for cleaning and subsequent sterilization of kegs, inert gases are used. In beer containers, the filling pipe system does not have a high degree of tightness. It passes a certain amount of oxygen. For stainless wine barrels, this is unacceptable.

 

Inert gases argon or nitrogen are needed so that the drink does not oxidize. In addition, if the wine is stored in a metal barrel, then there must be some amount of dissolved CO2 in it, as in a bottle. Carbon dioxide is necessary for the taste and aroma characteristics of the liquid to remain at the same level.

 

In addition, there is a recommendation to use a mixture of a small amount of carbon dioxide with nitrogen. It is similar to the one used by Guinness.

 

Stainless steel barrels for wine are a modern reusable material, strong, durable and hygienic. Their many advantages outweigh the disadvantages so much that there is no doubt that such containers will become increasingly popular among winemakers.

 

Stainless steel

 

A stainless steel barrel is suitable for the production and storage of wine because it is neutral to the acids and alcohol present in the must. This material is not only the strongest and most durable among those used in winemaking, it has other advantages.
 
With the help of a stainless steel container, the problem of broken bottles and poor-quality corks is eliminated. And the drink itself after opening can be kept fresh for a long time, with the preservation of taste and smell. It is no secret that all reputable establishments selling wine on tap have to solve the problem of its storage. An open bottle will not necessarily be consumed by the end of the day. Because of this, not only the original smell can disappear on the last glasses, but also the taste.
 
Therefore, at the end of the shift, the rest of the wine is poured from bottles into special storage facilities. The presence of a stainless steel container connected to a drain tap and equipped with a special storage system greatly simplifies the process. Yes, and a tasting portion to the client can be poured without problems, for this you do not need to open the bottle.
 
In addition, stainless steel is a more suitable material than wood for aging white wines. In such containers, the "summer" freshness of the aroma and pleasant taste are better preserved.
 
I would especially like to note the usefulness of such a stainless steel product as a barrel with a floating lid. This is an ideal container when it is necessary to fill it to the top in order to exclude the contact of the drink with oxygen, for example, during the stage of quiet fermentation of wine.

 

Winemaking technology.

 

Real wine is made only from grapes. Technical grape varieties used for wine production must meet special requirements: they accumulate sugar well, have moderate acidity, lend themselves well to processing, and ripen at different times.

 

White wines are made from grapes with a high content of aromatic substances and acids, red - with a high content of coloring substances and phenolic compounds. Highly sugary and aromatic varieties are used to produce dessert and liqueur wines. For strong wines, high-sugar varieties with a low acid content, a large amount of extractive and phenolic substances are good.

 

For grape wines made without any additives, the name "natural wine" is sometimes used. Usually these are dry and semi-dry wines. Flavored wines are made using various additives. This is a group of wines prepared by mixing wine materials, rectified ethyl alcohol or grape spirit, sugar syrup and infusions of ingredients that give them a specific taste and aroma.

 

The main type of flavored wine is vermouth. For flavoring wines, in addition to infusions of ingredients, alcohol solutions of essential oils (essences), aromatic substances (for example, vanillin), balms and aromatic spirits are used. In the old days, such wines were called spicy. Of the other supplements, vitamins are interesting.

 

Wine production includes two stages. At the stage of primary winemaking, all operations associated with the processing of grapes are performed, which end with the production of young wine. At the stage of secondary winemaking, the wine material is processed, aged and bottled.

 

Harvested grapes are sent for crushing and pressing. To obtain champagne, it is sometimes pressed in clusters. The must flowing out of the grapes during light pressing without pressing, as well as the wine from it, is called gravity.

 

To make white wines, the must is quickly separated from the pulp. This technology is called whitewashing. Gravity and must of the first pressure is used to make high-quality wines, and subsequent pressing fractions are used to produce ordinary wine.

 

When processing according to the red method, it is necessary to extract the coloring matter from the skin of grape berries. For this, various methods are used: heating the pulp, fermentation of the must on the pulp, fortification and fermentation of the pulp with the extraction of coloring substances, and other methods.

 

Since ancient times, it has been known to sulfite the wort by introducing a small amount of sulfur dioxide in order to suppress harmful microorganisms. Without this technique, it is impossible to obtain a stable wine capable of storage. Next, the wort is clarified and sent for fermentation.

 

Fermentation is carried out on a pure culture of wine yeast or natural yeast. If you want to get a dry wine, then the sugar is fermented completely. When producing semi-sweet or sweet wines, fermentation is forcibly stopped in various ways: by alcoholization, cold or heat.

 

After the end of fermentation, the wine is clarified, it is removed from the yeast by transfusion. During pouring, wines of the same type and variety are mixed. The period from the end of fermentation to the first pouring is called the formation of wine. For the production of special wines, special technological methods are used.

 

The resulting young wine is sent for aging (see Wine aging), and after aging, mature wine is sent for bottling, which is usually done on automatic lines with minimal air access.

 

These are the main technological processes of wine production.

 

Classification of wine.

 

All wines are divided into varietal and blended. Varietal wines are made from one grape variety, blended wines are made from two or more wine materials of different grape varieties. Blended wines also include flavored wines.
 
Wines are divided into still and containing carbon dioxide, that is, carbon dioxide. Still wines include table (dry, semi-dry and semi-sweet), strong, dessert (semi-sweet, sweet and liqueur), flavored wines, and those containing carbonic acid - champagne and sparkling. Carbon dioxide gives the game of wine - the intensive release of a large number of small bubbles of carbon dioxide.
 
Wines obtained as a result of full (dry) or partial (semi-dry and semi-sweet) fermentation are called table wines. When preparing them, it is not allowed to introduce any foreign substances into the must or wine, except those permitted by law, including alcohol. Therefore, they are also called natural. Dry table wines contain 9-14% vol. ethyl alcohol and up to 0.3 g / 100 ml. Sahara. Semi-dry - 9-12% vol. alcohol and 1-2.5 g / 100 ml. Sahara. Semi-sweet - 9-12% vol. alcohol and 3-8 g / 100 ml. Sahara.
 
Fortified wines are made using ethyl alcohol, mainly rectified or grape distillate. According to the alcohol content, they are divided into strong - 17-20% vol. alcohol (sometimes more), of which natural fermentation alcohol is at least 3% and dessert - 12-17% and 1.2%. The sugar content in strong wines is 1-14 g/100 ml. Fortified wines include port, Madeira, Malaga, Marsala, sherry.
 
Natural and fortified wines containing 12-17% vol. alcohol and 2-35 g / 100 ml. sugars are called dessert. The proportion of alcohol of natural fermentation here is not less than 1.2% vol. Dessert wines are semi-sweet - 14-16% vol. alcohol, 5-12 g / 100 ml. Sahara; sweet - 15-17% vol. alcohol, 14-20 g / 100 ml. Sahara; liqueur - 12-17% vol. alcohol, 21-35 g / 100 ml. Sahara. The latter include most Muscat, Tokay wines, Malaga.
 
Champagne usually contains 10.5-12.5% vol. alcohol and, depending on the sugar content, is divided into brut (up to 1 g / 100 ml of sugar), dry (up to 3 g / 100 ml of sugar), semi-dry (up to 5 g / 100 ml of sugar), semi-sweet ( up to 8 g/100 ml sugar) and sweet (up to 10 g/100 ml sugar).
 
Sparkling wines are divided into red (11-13.5% alcohol by volume, 7-8 g / 100 ml sugar), rose (10.5-12.5% alcohol by volume, 6-7 g / 100 ml . sugar), nutmeg (10.5-12.5% vol. alcohol, 9-12 g / 100 ml. sugar) and effervescent (9-12% vol. alcohol, 3-8 g. / 100 ml. sugar ).
 
Flavored wines, as a rule, contain 16-18% vol. alcohol and from 6 to 16 g / 100 ml. Sahara.
 
Wines are divided into whites, rosés and reds. The French say that white wine is created to quench thirst, red - for enjoyment, rose - for love.
 
The transparency of wine depends on the presence of small particles in it and characterizes its appearance. High-quality bottled wines should be crystal clear, barrel-bottled wines should also be clear.
 
By quality, wines are divided into ordinary, vintage and collection.
 
Special wines include wines obtained as a result of the use of special manufacturing techniques and having characteristic properties in bouquet and taste: port, Madeira, sherry, Marsala, Malaga, Tokay, Cahors, sparkling wines, flavored wines and others.
 
Quality and life stages of wine.
 
The quality of wine is determined primarily by its harmony, that is, the mutual correspondence of quality elements: color, aroma, taste. Distinguish the harmony of individual elements - aroma, taste, as well as the harmony of wine as a whole.
 
On this basis, the wine is characterized as refined, subtle, well-coordinated, harmonious, round or simple, ordinary, tired, inharmonious, rough, disordered. With aging, as a rule, the wine becomes more harmonious.
 
Ordinary wines are produced without aging at the age of up to one year, but not earlier than 3 months after grape processing. Prepared from grapes of one variety or a mixture of varieties.
 
High-quality wines include vintage wines - aged high-quality wines produced using a special technology from one or a few grape varieties approved for each brand, grown in certain areas, microdistricts or plots.
 
The main requirements for vintage wines are the constant characteristics of each particular brand of wine that persist from year to year and high taste qualities due to the grape variety, technology and aging, during which the wines mature and age. The duration of aging of such wines, depending on the type, ranges from 1.5 to 4 years or more.
 

The assessment of the quality of wine is made by tasting it.

 

Wine goes through the stages of birth, maturation and aging, but over time, the death of wine occurs - its destruction, loss of characteristic qualities, presentation, the color of the wine changes, sediment precipitates, unpleasant smell and taste appear. The process of dying off in different wines proceeds at different speeds - fast for table wines, slower for strong and dessert wines. The life span of white table wines and champagne is 3-5 years, red table wine - 5-10 years, dessert - 18-20 years. The life span of strong and high-sugar (liqueur) wines is very long and can exceed 100 years.

 

Winemaking technology, a scientific discipline that studies the methods and techniques of processing grapes for wine materials, as well as processing, aging and bottling wines. Based on data from wine chemistry, winemaking microbiology, winemaking biochemistry, ampelography and other disciplines.

 

The task of winemaking technology is to identify the physicochemical, biochemical, and other regularities in the processes of making wines of various types in order to establish the most effective technologies. Louis Pasteur is considered the founder of the science of wine.

 

Chemistry of wine, enochemistry, applied science that studies the chemical composition of grapes and wine, methods of analysis and chemical processes occurring at different stages of wine making. Historically, the chemistry of wine as a science has developed from the technology of winemaking.

 

The simplest determination of the sugar content of grapes and the strength of wine was made in Greece, Egypt, and other Mediterranean countries even before Christ. e. The foundations of modern wine chemistry were laid in the 19th century. Louis Pasteur (on must fermentation and wine maturation). P. Berthelot (on the role of oxygen in the process of wine maturation), D. I. Mendeleev (on compiling alcoholometric tables).

 

When studying the chemical composition of wines, as well as the processes occurring at various stages of their preparation, modern chemical and physico-chemical research methods are used, including gas-liquid, liquid and ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, disk electrophoresis, nuclear magnetic resonance , electron paramagnetic resonance, UV and IR spectroscopy, atomic absorption, etc.

 

More than 500 components have been identified in grapes and wines, for a significant part of which a role in winemaking processes has been established. This made it possible to more correctly evaluate the existing technology for making different types of wines and develop a number of new, more efficient technological methods.

 

From the vine to the bottle - the technology of making wine.

 

The work of the winemaker begins long before the harvest. A good winemaker works throughout the year, visiting the vineyard daily and using all his knowledge and experience to grow a quality product for making wine. The winemaker prepares the land for winter, removes overly old vines, if the vineyard is located on a slope (and this is an extremely common occurrence), the winemaker has to lift up the soil that has sunk over the year due to rains.

It is necessary to trim the vineyard - this regulates the fruiting of the vines and affects the quality of the grapes. How to cut - depends on the type of land, climate. This knowledge also comes with experience. Also, the winemaker fertilizes the soil, removes weeds, fights pests and diseases of grapes, protects it from early frosts. And only then comes the process of harvesting, followed by the production of wine.

For the manufacture of red wine, red grapes are used, they are harvested, delivered to the winery and processed. First, the grapes go to the destemming machine, where the berries are crushed and destemmed.

During this operation, the grape seeds must not be damaged - in this case, the wine may have a too tart, unpleasant taste.

 

Crushed grapes are placed in vats, where they are injected with special substances that kill bacteria. Then fermentation takes place.

 

Grape wine can only be obtained as a result of alcoholic fermentation of crushed grapes (together with the skin or juice separately). Fermentation is a complex chemical process that is caused by yeast, which has the ability to decompose sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide with the release of heat. Alcoholic fermentation is the foundation of winemaking. At a temperature of +12 - +14C. and above, bubbles of carbon dioxide appear on the surface of the wort - this is a sign of the onset of fermentation.

After a day or two, fermentation becomes violent. A mass of foam forms on the surface. Gradually, after two or three weeks, fermentation subsides and, finally, completely stops.

 

Instead of sweet juice, a liquid is obtained, devoid of sugar, but enriched with alcohol. It's already wine.

 

It should be noted that when preparing young fruit wines, the grapes are not crushed before fermentation, and the transition of sugar into alcohol is carried out inside the berries. Fermentation always takes place along with the skin, its coloring matter dissolves in the must and determines the color of the wine. Fermentation lasts 9-15 days, sometimes up to three weeks, at a strictly controlled temperature - no higher than + 30 ° C.

 

Depending on the sugar content in the grapes, during fermentation, wines of different strengths are obtained, which are calculated in degrees or in volume percentages (% vol.). One percent of sugar in the pressed wort gives 0.6% vol. Alcohol. Thus, the grapes received for processing with a basic sugar content of 18%, after complete fermentation, gives wine with a strength of 10.8% by volume, that is, table wine.

 

In addition to sugar, grapes contain acids - tartaric, malic, citric, without which it would be, although sweet, but tasteless. This ratio between sugars and acids determines the taste of grapes, influencing the evaluation of wines of any type - table, strong, effervescent.

 

Grape wine is a very complex compound, the number of elements included in it is about 600. There are wines prepared with the addition of alcohol, the so-called fortified, or alcoholized. Alcohol used in winemaking must be rectified - free from impurities, without any foreign tastes and odors.

The introduction of alcohol into the fermenting wort makes it possible to suspend fermentation at any of its stages and thereby keep the predetermined amount of sugar unfermented.

 

Alcoholization can increase the strength of wine to certain values characteristic of a given type and variety. If during the ripening of the grapes there were few sunny days, and its harvest is not good enough, sugar additions are allowed in some countries.

 

When fermentation is over and most of the sugar has been converted to alcohol, the vat is lowered and the first, highest quality wine drains. The remaining contents of the vat are pressed, obtaining a "first press" containing a lot of tannins. You can also squeeze out the “second press”, but, as a rule, it is not used in further production.

 

"Samotek" (wine drained by itself without pressing) and "first press" are mixed, the amount of the latter depends on the desired structure of the wine. After that, in the production of cheap, young wine, it is poured into metal vats, then filtered and bottled.

 

Expensive wine is aged in a cellar, in oak barrels, giving it additional aromas. Due to evaporation, the winemaker must constantly top up the barrels with wine to prevent it from oxidizing from contact with air. The sediment formed during aging gradually sinks to the bottom, and the wine must be poured into clean barrels, and so four times a year. In total, aging lasts from one to two years or more.

 

Wines aged for a year or less are called ordinary, aged for more than a year or two - vintage. After aging, the wine is clarified with the help of the so-called “fining”: casein or egg white is introduced into it, forming an insoluble precipitate with unwanted substances.

 

The wine is then passed through a mechanical filter and bottled. As a rule, well-refined wines are not able to improve their quality later, although they tolerate transportation and temperature changes better, while weakly clarified wines are easily vulnerable, but age well in the bottle, while developing additional aromas. This is confirmed by the sediment that is inherent in expensive high-quality wines that require decanting.

 

White wines are made from both white and red grapes, for example, red Pinot Noir is used for the production of champagne, and Camet is used for Beaujolais Blanc. The main difference in the production of white wines is that the crushed berries are pressed before fermentation, and the must ferments without skins. For high-quality white wines, only "gravity" is used, while for others, both "first" and "second press" can be used. The fermentation temperature is reduced to + 13-20°C.

 

Prolonged fermentation at low temperature produces a finer, fruitier wine. White wine is bottled earlier than red wine, usually it is not aged in oak barrels for more than 1.5 years. Rosé wine is made from red grapes, with the must remaining in contact with the skins for several hours before the skins are separated. With the exception of some champagnes, rosé should not be made from a mixture of red and white grapes.

 

At each stage of creating wine, the quality of the final product depends on the experience of the winemaker, his knowledge and honesty. Everything is important here: the yield of wine per hectare of the vineyard (quantity, as you know, interferes with quality), careful harvesting, careful control of fermentation, not too strong filtration, good "wine education" and much more.

 

Real wine is made only from grapes. Technical grape varieties used for wine production must meet special requirements: they accumulate sugar well, have moderate acidity, lend themselves well to processing, and ripen at different times.

 

White wines are made from grapes with a high content of aromatic substances and acids, red - with a high content of coloring substances and phenolic compounds. Highly sugary and aromatic varieties are used to produce dessert and liqueur wines. For strong wines, high-sugar varieties with a low acid content, a large amount of extractive and phenolic substances are good.

 

For grape wines made without any additives, the name "natural wine" is sometimes used. Usually these are dry and semi-dry wines. Flavored wines are made using various additives. This is a group of wines prepared by mixing wine materials, rectified ethyl alcohol or grape spirit, sugar syrup and infusions of ingredients that give them a specific taste and aroma.

 

The main type of flavored wine is vermouth. For flavoring wines, in addition to infusions of ingredients, alcohol solutions of essential oils (essences), aromatic substances (for example, vanillin), balms and aromatic spirits are used. In the old days, such wines were called spicy. Of the other supplements, vitamins are interesting.

 

Fortified wines were developed, in particular, during the Great Patriotic War for the treatment of the wounded in evacuation hospitals. Wine production includes two stages. At the stage of primary winemaking, all operations associated with the processing of grapes are performed, which end with the production of young wine. At the stage of secondary winemaking, the wine material is processed, aged and bottled.

 

Harvested grapes are sent for crushing and pressing. To obtain champagne, it is sometimes pressed in clusters. The must flowing out of the grapes during light pressing without pressing, as well as the wine from it, is called gravity.

 

To make white wines, the must is quickly separated from the pulp. This technology is called whitewashing. Gravity and must of the first pressure is used to make high-quality wines, and subsequent pressing fractions are used to produce ordinary wine.

 

When processing according to the red method, it is necessary to extract the coloring matter from the skin of grape berries. For this, various methods are used: heating the pulp, fermentation of the must on the pulp, fortification and fermentation of the pulp with the extraction of coloring substances, and other methods.

 

Since ancient times, it has been known to sulfite the wort by introducing a small amount of sulfur dioxide in order to suppress harmful microorganisms. Without this technique, it is impossible to obtain a stable wine capable of storage. Next, the wort is clarified and sent for fermentation.

 

Fermentation is carried out on a pure culture of wine yeast or natural yeast. If you want to get a dry wine, then the sugar is fermented completely. When producing semi-sweet or sweet wines, fermentation is forcibly stopped in various ways: by alcoholization, cold or heat.

 

After the end of fermentation, the wine is clarified, it is removed from the yeast by transfusion. During pouring, wines of the same type and variety are mixed. The period from the end of fermentation to the first pouring is called the formation of wine. For the production of special wines, special technological methods are used.

 

The resulting young wine is sent for aging, and after aging, mature wine is sent for bottling, which is usually done on automatic lines with minimal air access.

 

WINE AGING is a long-term storage of wine under conditions that improve its quality. Wine that has been aged for a long time acquires the qualities characteristic of finished wine.

 

During aging, complex processes of maturation (in barrels in the presence of air) and aging (in bottles without air) of the wine take place. The chemical aging process is very complex. In addition to oxygen, which is necessary for wine to reach bottling maturity (bottling resistance), it involves the transformation of organic acids, the formation of esters and the reactions of individual substances with each other.

 

The laying of wine for aging is carried out until April 1, and the aging periods are calculated from January 1 of the year following the harvest. Aging wine undergoes a number of technological operations: dosing of sulfur dioxide, oxygen, treatment with stabilizers, cold, heat, filtration, blending, topping up, pouring and others.

 

The optimal barrel aging temperature for different types of wines is from 11° C to 18° C, humidity is about 85%. It is produced in special wine cellars, artificial or adapted underground facilities. In such basements there are no daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature, which ensures optimal temperature conditions. For barrel aging, barrels, butas (very large barrels) and enameled tanks are used. The barrel aging period is different for different types of wines and ranges from 1 to 6 years, and sometimes more.

 

After the end of barrel aging and bottling, vintage wines of high quality are aged in bottles. Collection wines are aged in bottles for at least 3 years. Ordinary wines enter the market without being subjected to bottle aging. In the process of aging without access to oxygen, the wine acquires a delicate bouquet of bottle aging. Bottle aging of ports and many dessert wines lasts 20-30 years or more.

 

Bottles are corked with long cork stoppers without pores on the bottoms. To prevent the development of mold, the cork is coated with a protective compound. To prevent the cork from drying out, wine bottles are placed horizontally in special shelf devices, usually designed for 50-500 bottles. Bottles are inspected 2 times a year and defects noticed are eliminated. As wine ages in bottles, sediment forms.