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Currently, there are several companies engaged in the installation of a copper roof in Kiev. The data companies use a variety of roofing copper production: Ukraine, Russia, Czech Republic and Germany. Most quality according to many experts is the German copper production plants KME.Krysha of copper - a sign of high status in society, so when its installation shall be of high quality as well as the appropriate level of expertise and equipment. The copper roof has a lifetime of over 150 years and therefore copper roofing is almost eternal material. Copper roofing goes through various stages of oxidation - from copper to the oxidized patina. Perhaps in the manufacture of roofing elements to use ready-made copper colors patinated copper oxide and copper production of KME. From the roof can be made of copper roofing elements such as copper block, Copper scales Copper seam roofing, roof elements filings, copper lining, fascia board copper, copper water drainage system.

 

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The base for roofing from copper tapes (sheets) should be made in the form of a continuous flooring from wooden bars or boards, as well as from waterproof plywood or OSB. The thickness of the flooring is determined by calculating the effect of the design load, taking into account the pitch of the rafters. An underlying layer of rolled materials can be laid on the base in front of the roofing device. Strips of such materials should be laid parallel to the ridge with an overlap of at least 80 mm from the upper strip to the lower one. Strips of the underlying layer material are nailed to the base with copper nails in 120 mm increments.
Above the cold attic, a ventilated roof is made, consisting of a base laid on the rafters, an underlying layer and a coating of copper tapes or sheets (Image 1a). In an insulated combined roof (Image 1b, 1c), an effective thermal insulation layer must be protected:
- a layer of vapor barrier that prevents the diffusion of water vapor in winter from heated rooms and its condensation inside the structure; - a layer of material with low air permeability (anti-wind layer) that prevents air filtration caused by the wind. Heat-insulating boards must be laid in such a way that the boards completely fill the cavities along the entire length and width and that there are no gaps and air gaps between them, as well as between the boards and the roof structural elements limiting the cavities.
Strips (sheets) of materials used for the installation of a vapor barrier layer and an anti-wind layer must be laid in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

 

Image 1 - Options for ventilated roofing with copper sheets.

 

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a - above the cold attic; b - above the insulated coating with one ventilation duct; c - the same, with a double ventilation duct;
1 - folded copper roof; 2 - underlying layer; 3 - solid flooring from coniferous boards; 4 - rafters; 5 - remote bar; 6 - anti-wind layer of water-proof vapor-permeable material; 7 - thermal insulation; 8 - vapor barrier; 9 - ceiling.
 
In the insulated combined roof for natural ventilation, inlets and outlets should be arranged. The inlets (vents) must be made in the form of continuous slots and located at the lowest point of the roof (cornice), and the outlets - at the highest point of the ridge. The dimensions of the inlet are set at the rate of 2% of the roof area (but not less than 250 cm2 per running m), and the outlet - 0.5%. When installing metal insect screens on the inlets and outlets, the width of the ventilated slot must be increased by at least 45%. In ventilation ducts with a length of more than 15 m, stagnant zones may form, and therefore they must be divided into separate sections. The height of the cross section of the ventilation duct above the thermal insulation must be at least 5 cm.
 
The narrowing of the channel, the presence of obstacles in it and the change of its direction are not allowed. this reduces the effect of natural ventilation and may lead to moisture accumulation. In cases where it is impossible to arrange ventilation of the roof, it is allowed to install a non-ventilated insulated combined roof (Image 2).
 

Image 2 - Non-ventilated roofing with copper sheets.

 

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1 - folded copper roof; 2 - underlying layer; 3 - solid flooring from coniferous boards; 4 and 5 - layers of thermal insulation; 6 - rafters; 7 - vapor barrier; 8 - ceiling.

 

Materials used for copper roofing:

 

For roofing, copper sheets GOST 495 and copper tapes GOST 1173 are used from copper grades M1r, M1f, M2r, M3r, M2 and M3 according to GOST 859. Copper in sheets and tapes belongs to soft materials with a regulated grain size. The surface of the tapes should be clean, the edges should be evenly cut and should not have significant burrs. The crescent of the tapes should not exceed 3 mm per 1 m of length. The physical and technical properties of the material of sheets and tapes are given in table 1.

 

Table 1

 

Name of indicator, unit measurements Indicator value
Tensile strength MPa (kgf/mm2) 200-26 (20-27)
Relative elongation, not less than % 36
Brinell hardness 55
Coefficient of linear expansion, mm/m 1,7
Weight of 1 m2 of copper tape, kg 4,90

 

The main geometric parameters of the tapes are shown in Table 2.

 

Thickness,
mm
Width,
mm
Maximum deviation in the thickness of the tapes, mm Maximum deviation in the width of the tapes, mm Roll inner diameter, mm
  0,55 600 ±0,08 ±1,2 40¸ 500

 

Roof base.

 

The base under the roof is made of:

 

 bars or boards of coniferous species (GOST 24454) with a thickness of at least 24 mm (tongue joints are provided in the boards), coniferous wood must be antiseptic;

 

 flooring made of weather-resistant bakelized plywood FBS and FBS1 (GOST 11539) with a thickness of 22 - 24 mm.


 OSB flooring 9mm thick.

Copper roofing
The connection of copper sheets of the roof (strips) in the direction across the slope is carried out using standing double folds. The finished fold has a height of at least 23 mm, is performed by connecting the edges of adjacent sheets (Image 4).
 
 
The folds of pictures (tapes, sheets) for the installation of standing folds should be taken equal to 20 mm for one picture and 35 mm for another picture adjacent to it.
 
 
To be able to perceive thermal deformations of the copper roof, the edge of one of the joined sheets is made inclined with a gap of at least 3 mm (Image 5). To fasten the roof paintings to the base, clamps are used (Image 6), which are fixed with nails to the base and inserted into standing folds (Image 4). On the main surfaces of the roof, the recommended number of clamps is 4 pieces / m2 with a pitch of 400 - 500 mm. For roof sections located along the perimeter of the building, the number of clamps is increased to 5 pcs / m2 and the pitch is reduced to 350 mm. The installation can be carried out manually with special roofing frames or with a mechanized folding machine.
 

Image 3 - Seam connection device.

 

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a) making edges on the sheet; b) installation of a clamp (sliding clamp) on the base and edge of the sheet; c) installation of a second sheet with a bent edge forming a double standing seam

 

Image 4 - Expansion joint

 

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On roof slopes up to 3 m long, ordinary clamps are used (Figure 6), on roof slopes more than 3 m long, movable clamps (Figure 7) are used to compensate for thermal deformations of the copper roof in the direction of the slope.

 

Image 5 - Fastening clamps made by mechanized (a) and manual (b) methods

 

 

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Image 6 - Movable clamp

 

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The connection of copper sheets (strips) in the direction of the slope is carried out using recumbent folds with solid clamps inserted into them, attached to the base with copper nails. Depending on the slope can be provided;

 single recumbent seam for a roof with a slope of 25 ° (45%) or more (Image 8, a);


 double recumbent seam for roofs with slopes from 16 (30%) to 25 ° (45%) (Image 8.6).

 

Bends of pictures (tapes, sheets) for the installation of lying folds should be taken equal to at least 25 mm.
Lying folds of adjacent sheets should be spaced apart (Image 9).
 

 

Image 7 - Lying folds

 

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a) single; b) double

 

Image 8 - Location of horizontal joints and fastening of sheets

 

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1- movable clamp; 2 - copper sheets; 3 - single lying fold with a solid clamp

 

The device of knots and connections of a roof.

 

Cornice.

 

In the flooring of the base at the cornice, recesses of at least 5 mm are made for brackets for installing gutters on the cornice (Image 11). After installing and fixing the bracket, cornice overhangs made of a copper sheet or strip are attached to the end of the flooring with nails (position 1 of Figure 11). Individual eaves with a maximum length of 3.0 m are connected with staples (with a gap of 3 mm) or with an overlap of 20 mm. To fix the overhangs to the end of the roof base, copper roofing nails 2.8x25 mm are used, placing them in a checkerboard pattern with a distance between them of no more than 100 mm.

 

Image 9 - Structural steps of the coating

 

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a) 1 - standing fold with beveled edges; 2 - recumbent fold with a solid clamp; 3 - cornice overhang; 4 - folded copper roof; 5 - underlying layer; 6 - base under the roof.

b, c) 1 - standing fold with square edges; 2 - cornice overhang; 3 - underlying layer; 4 - folded copper roof; 5 - base under the roof.

 

Figure 10 - Gutter installation

 

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1 - cornice overhang; 2 - underlying layer; 3 - semicircular gutter; 4 - gutter bracket; 5 - copper roofing; 6 - base under the roof; 7- wall
The elements of the cornice overhang are made with a short lower console (Image 12, a) or an elongated lower console with a grooved profile (Image 12, b), which is driven behind the bend of the gutter (Image 11).

 

Image 11 - Cornice strips with a short vertical overhang (a) and a long vertical overhang (b)

 

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The standing seam of the roofing sheets on the eaves must always be brought to the edge of the roof (Image 13).

 

Figure 12 - Forms of a standing seam at the eaves

 

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a and b) with square edges c) with bevelled edges.
At the break of long slopes, breaks in standing folds are provided (Image 14, a), on slopes up to 3 m long, continuous folds are arranged (Image 14, b).
 

Skate.

 

The ventilation ridge is arranged from separate sections, which are installed in the longitudinal direction of the ridge with an overlap (Image 15).
The ridge can retreat from the pediment (Image 16, a), narrow towards the end of the pediment (Image 16, b) or protrude beyond the pediment (Image 16, c). The height of the ridge should be no more than 150 mm.
When installing a non-ventilated ridge in the longitudinal direction, copper brackets are installed with a pitch of 400 mm, for which sheets of roof slopes are fixed (Image 17). In the longitudinal direction, the sections of the ridge are connected in an overlap, which ensures the reliability of the joints and the perception of temperature deformations.
 

 

Image 13 - Gaps in standing folds (a) and continuous folds (b)

 

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1- standing fold with beveled edges; 2 - underlying layer; 3 - cornice overhang; 4 - base under the roof

 

Image 14 - Ventilated gable roof ridge.

 

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1 - lining the ridge with a copper sheet; 2 - copper bracket; 3 - recumbent fold; 4 - underlying layer; 5 - folded copper roofing; 6 - base under the roof.

 

Image 15 - Options for the end section of the ridge on the gable.

 

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Image 16 - T-fold seam skate.

 

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1 - standing fold; 2 - copper bracket; 3 - underlying layer; 4 - base under the roof; 5 - sections of the ridge
In this design, standing folds suitable for the ridge can be placed directly opposite each other.
 

 

Attachment of the roof to the wall.

 

In places where the roof adjoins the wall, sheets (strips) of copper roofing are brought onto the wall to a height of at least 300 mm and fixed to it with copper brackets. A copper weir apron is installed above the end of the sheets (Image 18). The edge of the apron is covered with a shaped copper element with filling the gap at the junction of the apron with sealing compounds.

 

Image 17 - Connections of the copper roof to the wall

 

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