Chemical reactors made of stainless steel

 

Chemical reactor - equipment for chemical reactions with a volume of several milliliters to dozens of cubic meters. The purpose of the reactor is the production of the final product from the original components, while meeting the requirements of maximum process efficiency.

Reactors are classified according to a number of characteristics:

by the state of the reacting substances:

  •     In homogeneous reactors one phase takes part: liquid or gas;
  •     In heterogeneous reactors several phases are involved, for example, liquid and solid.
  • by the way of organization of the technological process:
  • In batch reactors, the reagents are loaded into the reactor before or during operation of the reactor, then the mixture is maintained in the reactor and the products are discharged;
  • In continuous reactors, there is a continuous supply of reagents to the reaction zone and a continuous withdrawal of products;
  • Reactors of semicontinuous and semi-periodic operation work on the principle of the functioning of two reactants, one of which proceeds continuously and the second one periodically, or the substances are fed periodically, while the reaction products are removed continuously.
  • functioning under vacuum;
  • functioning at high pressure;
  • operating at atmospheric pressure.
  • In endothermic reactors, the reaction proceeds with heat absorption;
  • In exothermic reactors, the reaction proceeds with the release of heat.
  • Reactors of displacement assume that any element of the volume of the stream moves at a constant speed and does not mix with other elements, but, on the contrary, displaces them;
  • In the mixing reactor, a continuous mixing of the mixture takes place, in which one element of the starting material entering the reactor is immediately mixed with the entire contents of the reactor.
  • Adiabatic reactors function without heat exchange with the external environment due to the achievement of thermal insulation of the outer surface of the reactor.
  • Isothermal reactors operate at a constant temperature, which is kept at the same level at all points of the reaction volume.
  • In polytropic reactors, the thermal regime is created not only by the thermal effect of the process itself, but also by the constructive, technical factors of the apparatus.
  • to increase the pressure in the reaction tank:
  • on the thermal effect of chemical processes:
  • by the way the reaction medium moves:
  • by thermal regime

Chemical reactors of stainless steel with capacity from 50 to 50 m3 are used for working under pressure and vacuum in the widest range of temperatures (from -80 to + 350 ° C). They are used for hydrolysis, neutralization, crystallization, evaporation and other processes, so it is important that almost all process connections and threaded adapters can be easily disassembled and replaced. A wide range of accessories allows the use of a reaction vessel for any technological process.

In the chemical industry, a variety of materials are used to make the equipment. This is due to the fact that various and specific requirements are imposed on the structural materials for the chemical apparatus. Materials that are used for this purpose should:
- have sufficient mechanical strength and resistance to corrosion
processed substances;
- to have appropriate physical properties (for example, good thermal conductivity);
- easy to be machined;
- do not have an inhibitory effect in the processes carried out in this apparatus;
- do not affect the purity of the reaction products;
- be cheap and affordable.

The main requirement for materials of chemical devices in most cases is their corrosion resistance, as it determines the durability of chemical equipment. Therefore, the most common material for the manufacture of chemical reactors is now stainless steel.



Stainless steel - alloy steel, resistant to corrosion in the atmosphere and corrosive environments. Chemical reactors made of stainless steel are ideally suited for the pharmaceutical industry, since their design features ensure maximum surface cleanliness and provide the necessary heat and substance flow, which allows meeting the stringent requirements of the GMP standard. Also these reactors are used in the food, perfume, cosmetics, chemical and paint industries.

Working with stainless steel reactors is safe, because it excludes the possibility of mechanical damage to the vessel, unlike glass reactors, which is an important factor when working with aggressive and explosive environments. Mechanical strength will ensure a long service life of the equipment. Chemical reactors of stainless steel with capacity from 50 to 50 m3 are used for working under pressure and vacuum in the widest range of temperatures (from -80 to + 350 ° C). They are used for hydrolysis, neutralization, crystallization, evaporation and other processes, so it is important that almost all process connections and threaded adapters can be easily disassembled and replaced. A wide range of accessories allows the use of a reaction vessel for any technological process.

The main brands of stainless steel, from which the reactors are made, are brands AISI 316 (08Х17Н13М2), AISI 321 (08X18H10T) и AISI 304 (08X18H10).

 

C

Mn

P

S

Si

Cr

Ni

Mo

Ti

AISI 304

0,08 max

2,0 max

0,045 max

0,03 max

1,0 max

18-20

8-10,5

-

 

AISI 316

0,08 max

2,0 max

0,045 max

1,0 max

1,0 max

16-18

10-14

2-3

 

AISI 321

0,08 max

2,0 max

0,045 max

0,3 max

1,0 max

17-19

9-12

-

5*C% 0,5 max

 

Chemical composition (AISI 304, AISI 316, AISI 321).

The AISI 304 grade is the most versatile and widely used of all stainless steel grades. Its chemical composition, mechanical properties, weldability and corrosion / oxidation resistance provide the best choice in most cases for a relatively low price.


The AISI 316 grade is a modification of AISI 304 steel due to the addition of molybdenum and a higher nickel content. The presence of these elements in such a mass fraction significantly increases the corrosion resistance in most media. Molybdenum makes steel more corrosion resistant in chloride, sea water and acetic acid vapors. Steel AISI 316 also has excellent mechanical and corrosive properties at negative temperatures.


AISI 321 grade is corrosion-resistant, heat-resistant, heat-resistant steel, unstable in sulfur-containing media. This steel grade does not undergo intergranular corrosion even when welding in mildly corrosive environments due to the addition of titanium to form a hard alloy.

 

In addition, the use of special steel grades is possible, taking into account the requirements specified in the customer's terms of reference.


When ordering the manufacture of the TM "Rosa Vetrov" reactor, you get the impeccable quality of the materials (only certified European steel) and the work performed, complete warranty and post-warranty maintenance of the manufactured equipment.


 The customer has the opportunity to control the quality of the manufactured equipment at all stages of its production.


The price of chemical reactors depends on the volume of the reactor and the functions performed, depending on the technical task of the customer. The group of companies "Rose of the Winds" will produce a chemical reactor in full compliance with the applicable equipment quality standards and customer requirements from high-quality materials of European manufacturers in the shortest time at the most reasonable prices.